Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, lifelong disorder with childhood onset, which seriously impairs the affected adults in a variety of daily living functions including:
- occupational functioning
ADHD is associated with a high percentage of other psychiatric disorders.
As an adult between 65–89% of all patients with ADHD suffer from one or more additional psychiatric disorders including:
- mood and anxiety disorders
- substance use disorders
- personality disorders mainly anti-social
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by chronic problems in attention and impulse control, age-inappropriate hyperactive behavior as well as emotional dysregulation like temper outbursts or mood swings.
A significant proportion of patients with the disorder also present with one or more additional psychological conditions.
The high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD is similar to the findings for children in which ADHD is associated in about 60–100% of all cases.
- oppositional defiant disorders in 50–60%,
- depressive syndromes in 16–26 % and
- anxiety disorders in about 15% of all children with ADHD
Also present are tic disorders and developmental disorders like reading and spelling disorders
The presence of comorbid disorders in adults with ADHD can create a stronger overall impairment with a poorer outcome and greater resistance to treatment as well as higher costs of illness.
All retrospective studies evaluating the lifetime prevalence of major depression consistently show that 35–50% of all adult individuals with ADHD suffer from one or more depressive episodes during the assessed lifespan a percentage which is higher than the risk in the general population of about